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Discover the Science Behind BrainTheory

BrainTheory® is a one of a kind, patented philosophy founded on the 12 leading scientific hypotheses on how aging works. BrainTheory N˚12 is a cognitive {nootropic} and wellness {adaptogen} enhancer that functions as your Elixir for Life by harnessing the transformative power {alchemy} of 12 neuroactive elements that reset and reverse 12 molecular pathways critical in aging. The properties of each element in BrainTheory N˚12 function in synergy for peak performance and are validated by the highest level evidence from hundreds of human clinical trials. 

The 12 Causes of Aging

Neurons are the cells of your brain that form a complex network with billions of connections. The two interactive images below are graphical illustrations of neurons. 

 Extensive research has discovered the 12 leading scientific hypotheses on aging that together form the BrainTheory of Aging below.

neuron-2-06.png

ATROPHY

CIRCADIAN CLOCK

DNA
METHYLATION

PROTEINOPATHY

GLYMPHATICS

REDOX
STRESS

IMMUNOSENESCENCE

TELOMERE
MORTALITY

INFLAMM-AGING

PLASTICITY

EXCITATION

GUT-BRAIN
AXIS

Interactive Neuron

BrainTheory reverses the 12 causes of aging using 12 age reversal elements. Click on each symbol or number below to explore the science behind BrainTheory. Alternatively, scroll down to view learn more.

INGREDIENTS IN ELIXIR No12

And how they target aging

ONE

Cause of Aging

ATROPHY

In the Neurological Reserve Hypothesis, brain size {brain reserve} and our brain's ability to grow, evolve, and adapt {cognitive reserve} decrease in dysfunctional {maladaptive} aging.  Neurological reserves vary dramatically between people because of differences in the resilience, communication, and connectivity of our neural networks. Brain cells {neurons} with good communication skills have superior connectivity, which activates the ‘connectome’ not only to survive but to thrive and make new and lasting connections.

Age Reversal Element

R-ALPHA LIPOIC ACID 

R-ALA is clinically shown to increase brain and cognitive reserves by reducing atrophy in multiple sclerosis, a disease model of brain atrophy, by up to 70%. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties Peripheral neuropathy, glucose and fat metabolism, weight control, and glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E function Dose Optimization BrainTheory N˚12 contains 100 mg of R-ALA. ALA is naturally made in the body with neuroactive R- and inactive S- forms. Studies show 200 to 2400 mg of ALA per day {R- and S- mixture} is safe with no known toxic level.

1. ATROPHY
2. REDOX STRESS

TWO

Cause of Aging

REDOX STRESS

In the Reductive-Oxidative Stress Hypothesis, neurons shapeshift from a stable, reduced state to an unstable, oxidized state with loss of electrons {free radicals} in maladaptive aging. This is the rationale behind the use of antioxidants and free radical scavengers in nutritional and dietary supplements as well as beauty products.

Age Reversal Element

CROCETIN

Crocetin {neuroactive saffron} is clinically shown to reduce redox stress in Alzheimer's disease similar to donepezil, a prescription medicine for dementia. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties Mild cognitive impairment, stroke, TBI, spinal cord injury, seizure, opioid-related memory loss and withdrawal, ADHD, and depression Dose Optimization In human dose-response studies, levels of saffron extracts {crocin, safranal, and picrocrocin} were undetectable while crocetin extract was detected at a significant level. The optimal dose of crocetin is 22.5 mg with no known toxic level. To make up for 50% absorption in the body, BrainTheory N˚12 contains 50 mg of crocetin.

THREE

Cause of Aging

INFLAMM-AGING

The Caloric Restriction Anti-Inflammation Hypothesis has the strongest evidence for reducing inflammation-related neuron damage in maladaptive aging. Deactivation of specific types of neuron {astrocytes and microglia} increase cognitive function and decrease neurodegeneration {brain regression}. Given the practical limitations of caloric restriction, mimickers of caloric restriction are well-studied and have similar effects to real caloric restriction.

Age Reversal Element

CURCUMIN

Curcumin {neuroactive turmeric} is clinically shown to reduce inflammation by mimicking caloric restriction and reducing dementia-related biomarkers {amyloid and tau}. Nootropic Adpaptogen Properties Memory and attention in healthy adults, mood, anxiety, fatigue, fat metabolism in metabolic syndrome, and stress and muscle damage in athletes and non-athletes Dose Optimization BrainTheory N˚12 contains 100 mg of crocetin. The allowable daily intake of crocetin is up to 3 mg per kg with no known toxic level. For a 70 kg or 154 lb person, this equals 1.5 mg per kg. In the gut, curcumin changes by making new bonds resulting in low 'free' levels. Artificial efforts to increase free curcumin with additives like piperine only break a small subset of curcumin bonds and miss the bigger picture.

3. INFLAMM-AGING

FOUR

Cause of Aging

DNA METHYLATION

Homocysteine is an amino acid that undergoes post-production changes via transfer of 1 carbon and 3 hydrogens atoms {methyl group}. High {hyper-} levels of homocysteine lead to dysfunctional transfer of methyl groups. In the DNA Methylation Homocysteine Metabolism Hypothesis, hypermethylation of DNA and proteins accelerates maladaptive aging.

Age Reversal Element

METHYLCOBALAMIN

Methylcobalamin {neuroactive vitamin B12} is clinically shown to control homocysteine metabolism to reduce DNA methylation. associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's as well as brain atrophy and oxygen-deprivation syndromes. Nooptropic Adaptogen Properties Mild cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorder, late-life depression, and peripheral neuropathy Dose Optimization Recommended daily allowance (RDA) of cobalamin is 2.4 mcg with no known toxic level. Studies show that 4 to 7 mcg of methylcobalamin is optimal in aging. Ten to 30% of adults over 50 have vitamin B12 malabsorption, and there is 50% bioavailability in the general population. To make up for 10% bioavailability based on an intake of 5 mcg, BrainTheory N˚12 contains 50 mcg of methylcobalamin.

4. DNA METHYLATION
5. PLASTICITY

FIVE

Cause of Aging

PLASTICITY

In the Neuroplastic Neurotransmitter Hypothesis, neuron development, recovery, and enhancement {neuroplasticity} is controlled by brain chemicals {neurotransmitters} including acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline, and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters are critical for attention, learning, cognition, memory, impulse control, reward behavior, mood, and stress. In maladaptive aging, neurotransmitter reserves that determine recruitment, activation, and communication between neural networks, cerebral blood flow, and grey matter preservation are impaired.

Age Reversal Element

5-METHYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE

5-MTHF {neuroactive folate} is clinically shown to be critical in neuroplastic neurotransmitter production and decreases dementia-related biomarkers {amyloid, homocysteine, and S-adenosylmethionine}. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties IQ, verbal comprehension, and working memory in mild cognitive impairment, SSRI-resistant major depression, chronic pain, autism spectrum disorder, primitive limbic system function in schizophrenia, and neural tube defects Dose Optimization The RDA of folate is 400 mcg with no known toxic level. BrainTheory N˚12 contains 400 mcg of dietary folate equivalents to adjust for 50% lower bioavailability of folate from food compared with supplementation.

6. TELOMERE MORTALITY

SIX

Cause of Aging

TELOMERE MORTALITY

In maladaptive aging, gene coding errors of our original chromosomes increase over time. In the Telomere Mortality Hypothesis, chromosomes shrink from degeneration of structures at the ends of chromosomes that preserve chromosome integrity {telomeres}. Telomerase is a catalyst protein {enzyme} that preserves telomeres and is produced in abundance in a subset of sea creatures and other non-human animals. In contrast, humans have minimal telomerase reserves in specific regions of the brain including the hippocampus {seahorse

Age Reversal Element

TRANS-PTEROSTILBENE

Trans-pterostilbene {neuroactive resveratrol} is clinically shown to increase telomere length by restoring RNA splicing ability to slow neurodegeneration in conditions like ALS, a disease model of telomere mortality. Trans-pterostilbene mimics caloric restriction via the SIRT1 aging pathway and regenerates hippocampus neurons and oxygen-deprived brain tissue. Dose Optimization At low doses up to 2.5 mg per kg, resveratrol promotes longevity pathways. At high doses, resveratrol inhibits DNA synthesis, damages chromosomes, and promotes programmed cell death in self and non-self cells, hence its use in cancer treatment. Based on 80% bioavailability compared to 20% in resveratrol and a dose of 2 mg per kg in a 70 kg {154 lb} adult, BrainTheory N˚12 contains 100 mg of trans-pterostilbene.

SEVEN

Cause of Aging

IMMUNOSENESCENCE

In the Immunosenescence Hypothesis, immune cell lines {innate and adaptive systems} become senescent, or senile. Within the adaptive system made up of antibody B cells, killer T cells, and helper T cells, targets in autoimmune disease are so specific they identify ‘self’ as the enemy. Similarly, in maladaptive aging, T-cells and molecular checkpoints become dysfunctional and so non-specific they target ‘self’ as the enemy leading to catastrophic microinflammation in the absence of neurological reserves.

Age Reversal Element

CHOLECALCIFEROL

Low to moderate doses of cholecalciferol {neuroactive vitamin D} is clinically shown to slow down immunosenescence by optimizing T-cell function. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties Depression, epilepsy, and axon and myelin growth stimulation in peripheral nerve injury Dose Optimization At high doses, which should be reserved for autoimmune disease, cholecalciferol led to fewer brain lesions in persons with multiple sclerosis. While vitamin D deficiency level less than 20 ng/ml is associated with poor health outcomes, high vitamin D levels greater than 50 ng/ml are associated with accelerated aging. The tolerable upper intake of cholecalciferol is 4000 IU, which equals 100 mcg or 500% RDA. Given oral absorption is 50%, BrainTheory N˚12 contains 50 mcg equivalent to 2000 IU or 250% RDA of cholecalciferol.

7. IMMUNOSENESCENCE
8. PROTEINOPATHY

EIGHT

Cause of Aging

PROTEINOPATHY

In the Proteinopathy Hypothesis, protein misfolding results in buildup of pathological proteins in maladaptive aging. ALS, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Parkinson's disease (PD), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are proteinopathies. ALS and FTD are due to TDP-43, AD from tau and amyloid, CAA from amyloid, PD from alpha-synuclein, and CTE from tau and TDP-43. CD-40, a protein processing immune cell, is dysfunctional in neurodegeneration, prion diseases, HIV dementia, and multiple sclerosis. Note: This is not related to dietary protein.

Age Reversal Element

APIGENIN

Apigenin {natural neuroactive flavonoid} is cliniclly shown to reduce proteinopathy by modulating CD-40 and limiting amyloid, tau, and alpha-synuclein protein misfolding. Apigenin stimulates neurotrophins {brain growth factors} to augment long term memory and learning. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties High stress cortisol levels, depression, insomnia, carcinogenesis, infection, and non-addictive alternative in anxiety because of GABA mimicry Dose Optimization Combination therapy with apigenin 100 mg in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis suggests clinical stabilization and reduction of abnormal biomarkers without adverse effects and no known toxic level. Therefore, BrainTheory N˚12 contains 100 mg of apigenin.

9. GLYMPHATICS

NINE

Cause of Aging

GLYMPHATICS

In the BrainTheory® Glymphatics Hypothesis of Maladaptive Aging, the glymphatic system becomes impaired. The glymphatic system is our brain's clearance mechanism, as the brain itself lacks a true lymphatic system. Waste and metabolic byproducts, such as misfolded proteins, are transported to the true lymphatic system outside of the brain via vessels of the brain covering {meninges} that then exit the skull base through the blood brain barrier, the integrity of which is controlled by mast cells.

Age Reversal Element

LUTEOLIN

Luteolin {natural neuroactive flavonoid} is clinically shown to clear neurotoxic waste products by controlling mast cell-related glymphatic dysfunction. Luteolin promotes neuron survival, development, and function via the anti-inflammatory capacity to morph immunity neurons {microglia} into a neuroprotective phenotype. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties ‘Brain fog,’ cognition, concentration, and multitasking in healthy adults, neurodegeneration, TBI, brain hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, attention and sociability in autism spectrum disorder, fibromyalgia, fatigue syndromes, and celiac disease Dose Optimization Combination therapy including luteolin 100 mg in children with autism spectrum disorder benefits function with no adverse effects and no known toxic level. Therefore, BrainTheory® N°12, contains 100 mg of luteolin.

10. CIRCADIAN CLOCK

TEN

Cause of Aging

CIRCADIAN CLOCK

In the BrainTheory® Circadian Clock Hypothesis of Maladaptive Aging, our circadian clock falls out of sync. Circadian clocks are automated molecular feedback loops that coordinate time-based rhythms {circadian rhythms} of gene expression, neuron function, physiology, and behavior. This system is preserved across species from insects to humans, and the aging circadian system is well-understood in animals with accelerated life stages like fruit flies. Clock gene mutations are associated with decreased lifespan and healthspan.

Age Reversal Element

MELATONIN

Melatonin, made naturally in the brain's pineal gland, is clinically shown to reset our circadian clock by balancing clock proteins in automated time-based molecular feedback loops. Melatonin partially reverses cerebral oxygen deprivation, proteinopathy, redox stress, inflammation, immunosenescence, and mimics caloric restriction via the SIRT-1 aging pathway to activate telomerase. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties Memory, learning, addiction, migraine Attention, concentration, executive function, memory, language, visuoconstructional skills, conceptual thinking, calculations, and orientation Dose Optimization Melatonin has no known toxic level, however, natural pituitary and hypothalamic hormone release is augmented by low dose melatonin 0.5 mg and inhibited by a higher dose melatonin 5 mg. Therefore, BrainTheory® N°12 contains 0.5 mg of melatonin.

11. EXCITATION

ELEVEN

Cause of Aging

EXCITATION

In the BrainTheory® Calcium-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Hypothesis of Maladaptive Aging, plasticity of neuron communication zones {synapses} are impaired by uncontrolled calcium release at glutamate-dependent NMDA receptors–no MSG, please. Two forms of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation {LTP} that increases memory, learning, and new information processing in the hippocampus and amygdala and long-term depression {LTD} associated with cognitive loss. Excess calcium lowers the LTP/LTD ratio with less LTP and more LTD. Note: This is not related to dietary calcium.

Age Reversal Element

MAGNESIUM L-THREONATE

MLT {neuroactive elemental magnesium} is clinically shown to induce calcium-dependent synaptic plasticity in mild cognitive impairment and moderate dementia by nearly 70% in 4 weeks. MLT has neuroprotective effects in acute brain injuries including cerebral edema, ischemic stroke, and cerebral vessel spasm. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties Learning, memory, epilepsy, migraine, depression, and chronic pain Dose Optimization Although there is not an RDA, MLT is less likely to cause systemic effects, such as diarrhea, than other forms of magnesium. Based on studies investigating blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and cellular MLT levels as well as MLT’s known cumulative delayed therapeutic effect and bell-shaped relationship with synapse density, BrainTheory® N°12 contains 11.7 mg of MLT.

12. GUT-BRAIN AXIS

TWELVE

Cause of Aging

GUT-BRAIN AXIS

In the BrainTheory® Gut-Brain Axis Hypothesis of Maladaptive Aging, the relationship between the enteric–aka gut–nervous system {ENS} and the central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous systems is dysfunctional. The ENS produces its own dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA and is essential to the function of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal glands, circadian rhythm, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, and neurodevelopment. Loss of mutually beneficial {symbiotic} microbe diversity leads to cognitive decline, behavioral changes, and neurodegeneration.

Age Reversal Element

APPLE PECTIN

Apple pectin is a prebiotic clinically shown to promote a healthy gut-brain axis by producing butyrate made by symbiotic microbes. In contrast to probiotics that introduce foreign microbes into our gut's environment, prebiotics nuture existing microbes by modifying environmentally-influenced genes {epigenetics}. Nootropic Adaptogen Properties Cognition, mood, memory, sleep, autism spectrum disorder, multiple sclerosis, depression, pain, fatigue, immunity, inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholism, obesity, high cortisol levels, bone density, bioactive food stability, and vitamin biosynthesis Dose Optimization BrainTheory® N°12 contains 50 mg of apple pectin. This is a conservative dose based on current pectin-containing supplements given lack of dosing standardization.

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